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2007-Volume 1, Number 2

作者: 文章来源: 点击数: 更新时间:2010年11月30日

 

 Journal of Modern Chinese History
VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 DECEMBER 2007

 

CONTENTS
 
Articles
Modern China’s cultural transformation—problems and prospects
Geng Yunzhi 
 
A research report on Japanese use of chemical weapons during the Second World War
Bu Ping
 
Soviet-Japanese relations and the strategic interests of the Guomindang and the CCP
—Chiang Kai-shek’s planning of sanctions against the CCP in 1943
Deng Ye
 
The Sino-Soviet Conference, 1924-1927
Tang Qihua 
 
Nationalism and the May Thirtieth Movement: an analysis of the northern intelligentsia
Ao Guangxu 
 
Review Essay
Writing about a different kind of medical history: a critical review of Zaizao bingren by Yang Nianqun
Yu Xinzhong 
 
Commentary
The past 20 years of modern Chinese social history
Xing Long and Hu Yingze 
 
Book Reviews
 
Notes on Contributors
 

 

 

Modern China’s cultural transformation—problems and prospects
 Geng Yunzhi
 
Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing
 
Modern China’s cultural transformation has been a long, torturous, and complex process that even now has yet to come to a conclusion. Previous publications on China's intellectual and cultural history have touched on this issue to some extent, but there have been few wide-ranging, focused, and systematic studies. This article is based on the author’s systematic research into this question and argues that the Chinese people, burdened with the weight of a long history and with deeply ingrained cultural traditions, must negotiate the complexities and uncertainties of the present as they adapt to a new era and build a new culture. Questions of culture manifest themselves in many different ways: in distinctions between Eastern and Western culture and between “Chinese” and “barbarian”, in the different resources and possibilities inherent in ancient and modern culture, in the fate of China's ethnic minorities, and in the relationship between material and spiritual “civilization.” In addition, social conditions can also pose almost insurmountable problems in the process of cultural transformation. These problems can only be solved when the whole nation is engaged in the practice of study and struggle, and the cultures of the world become more intimately linked through communication and the flow of ideas. Even then, solutions will not be quick in coming and the process of cultural change is necessarily gradual in nature. The transformation of China's culture in recent times and the modernization of the country as a whole are fundamentally concurrent processes that show a marked tendency towards globalization and individualism. Thus, externally, China must adhere to the idea of greater cultural openness while, internally, we must support the liberation of the people, and foster a positive creative spirit to the fullest potential.
 
 
A research report on Japanese use of chemical weapons during the Second World War 
Bu Ping
 
Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing
 
This research report introduces the historical process of Japanese use of chemical weapons against the Chinese during the Second World War, which caused serious casualties and mass destruction. In addition, it also elaborates on the discarded chemical weapons’ injuries to the Chinese people and their negative effects on environmental pollution. According to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which became effective in 1997, Japan should take responsibilities for destroying all chemical weapons abandoned on Chinese territory.
 
 
 Soviet-Japanese relations and the strategic interests of the Guomindang and the CCP
Chiang Kai-shek’s planning of sanctions against the CCP in 1943 
 Deng Ye
 
Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing
 
When in 1943 the Guomindang launched its third wave of anti-communist campaigns, Mao Zedong considered that Chiang Kai-shek had acted in the belief that Japan would soon invade the Soviet Union. Hitherto, Chinese historians have either ignored Mao’s judgment or failed to provide convincing explanations for it. There are two reasons for this attitude: first, historians have failed to appreciate the strategic implications of the relationship between the Soviet Union and Japan for relations between the Guomindang and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP); and second, relevant evidence regarding the events has not been available in document on Chiang. This essay answers questions raised by both points. Most commentators have claimed that this third anti-communist push ended by the middle or late July of 1943. However, Chiang in fact continued to make plans to mop up Shaanbei (the communist-controlled Northern Shaanxi area) and impose sanctions on the Communists. The formulation, revision and eventual abandonment of Chiang’s plans are also addressed in this essay.
 
 
The Sino-Soviet Conference, 1924-1927 
Tang Qihua
 
History Department, Cheng-chi University, Taipei 
 
Soviet Union issued two declarations toward China in 1919 and 1920, promising to nullify all treaty privileges in China previously established by the Tsarist government voluntarily. However, in the formal negotiations Karakhan insisted that old treaties must be replaced by new treaty. Finally, Sino-Soviet Agreement, literarily "Agreement on General Principles for the Settlement of Outstanding Questions", signed in May 1924 and diplomatic relations restored at once, a conference was stipulated to meet within one month to solve all questions and to conclude a formal treaty. Nevertheless, the conference was postponed for more than a year; when it did convene too many controversies led it to nowhere. Since no treaty was produced at the Sino-Soviet Conference, the old treaties were not abolished, therefore the Soviet’s promises were never practiced.
 
 
 Nationalism and the May Thirtieth Movement: an analysis of the northern intelligentsia
Ao Guangxu
 

 The Department of History, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou

 

Trilateral interactions existed between nationalism, the May Thirtieth Movement and the northern intelligentsia. Nationalism was an intellectual trend mainly popular among intellectuals, especially the northern intelligentsia. On the one hand, this trend of thought drove the Movement throughout the country; on the other hand, it exacerbated differentiation and stratification among the intelligentsia, which, to some extent, restrained the Movement. Gradually, it had become the spiritual core around which the right-wing intelligentsia gathered, forming the rudiment of “Third Force”. At the same time, the May Thirtieth Movement provided ideal conditions for nationalism to reach its climax.
 
 
The past 20 years of modern Chinese social history
Xing Long and Hu Yingze
 
Research Centre for Chinese Social History, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 
 
Modern Chinese social history has played an important role in the general revival of Chinese social history. This essay will provide an overview of the major achievements of past 20 years with particular emphasis upon the field of modern social history, the growth of regional social history, and the new research that draws upon field studies. It will also consider the recent debates on “re-examining political history” and provide an introduction to new works in medical history and environmental/ecological history.
 
 
 
 




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