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2008-Volume 2, Number 2

作者: 文章来源: 点击数: 更新时间:2010年11月30日

Journal of Modern Chinese History

VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 DECEMBER 2008
 
 
CONTENTS
 
Articles
Cooperation networks and actors in semi-colonial China, 1860–1911
Mechthild Leutner
 
Alone against the waking dragon: Britain’s failure to secure international
cooperation in China, 1925–1926
Irwin See
 
Diplomatic relations through wartime alliance: the Republic of China’s
relations with Canada
Larry N. Shyu
 
Judd’s China: a missionary congressman and US–China policy
Gao Yanli
 
From union clinics to barefoot doctors: healers, medical pluralism, and state
medicine in Chinese villages, 1950–1970
Fang Xiaoping
 
Commentary
In search of a new vision: recent Japanese-language overviews of modern
Chinese history
Ishikawa Yoshihiro
 
Review Essay
A review of China’s foreign policy decision-making during the Cold War
Chu Xiaobo
 
Book Reviews
 
Notes on Contributors
 
 
 
Cooperation networks and actors in semi-colonial China, 1860–1911
Mechthild Leutner
 Free University of Berlin, Berlin
 
This paper focuses on ‘‘cooperation networks’’ for the provision of public goods and services as a specific form of governance in late imperial China. While concentrating on differing forms of local self-regulation at the end of the Qing dynasty, the article pinpoints several actors involved in the cooperation networks and (re)classifies them along the continuum of ‘‘public’’ and ‘‘private.’’ In addition to state and non-state actors, the players included semi-state or hybrid actors with profound network advantages who played a crucial role in the provision of governance services, as well as colonial and transnational actors who occasionally took part in this cooperation. To contextualize these actors and illustrate their modes of interaction, this paper will describe cooperation networks established for the provision of disaster relief and education in local society in late Qing China. In so doing, this paper also will question participants’ motives and describe their personal gains, as well as the accumulation of symbolic capital as major incentives.
 
 
Alone against the waking dragon: Britain’s failure to secure international cooperation in China, 1925–1926
Irwin See
 University of Oxford alumnus, Singapore
 
This article examines the notion of international cooperation in affairs concerning China in the 1920s from the point of view of a major foreign power at that time, Britain, as it sought to find a suitable response to the huge outburst of nationalistic and anti-imperialist feelings in China in the summer of 1925. It aims to show that the ‘‘December Memorandum’’ issued by Britain in December 1926 was not a sudden liberal turning-point in British policy towards China as is commonly viewed, but must be properly understood in the context of the events preceding it. This misplaced faith in the notion of international cooperation by a major foreign power, Britain, would have far-reaching consequences for the future of Chinese nationalism.
 
 
Diplomatic relations through wartime alliance: the Republic of China’s relations with Canada
Larry N. Shyu
The University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick
 
Relations between China and Canada began 150 years ago with the arrival of Chinese immigrants in British Columbia. However, formal diplomatic relations were not established until 1942, when Canada and the Republic of China (ROC) became wartime allies in their common fight against the Axis powers. The Canadian government soon passed a China aid program and earmarked 52 million Canadian dollars in war materials for China. This aid program was not favored by either the United States or Great Britain, but was unilaterally adopted by the wartime Canadian government. However, shipments of war materials destined for unoccupied China were blocked by geographic barriers and could not reach their destination. Canada’s China aid program continued during the immediate post-war years. The main motivation was economic: to get rid of Canada’s surplus war materials and to develop bilateral trade relations. The aid program came to a halt in late 1948 only when China’s political development made the Canadian government change its China policy. Afterward, Canada’s diplomatic relations with ROC were stringently maintained until the Canadian government granted diplomatic recognition to the People’s Republic of China in 1970. This article is a brief survey of the Canada–ROC relations during those years.
 
 
Judd’s China: a missionary congressman and US–China policy
Gao Yanli
Department of History and Department of English, Peking University, Beijing
 
Congressman Walter Henry Judd was an active player in Sino–US relations in the twentieth century. Unique for an American Congressman, he served for 10 years as a medical missionary in China. This article examines his motivation for going to China, his perceptions of Chinese culture, society, and politics, and the impact of Chinese culture on him. It demonstrates that cultural influence is not a one-way process, but reciprocal. Judd’s views of China and his ardent Christian beliefs made him in turn a liberal missionary and a conservative anti-Communist congressman with a significant role in Sino–US relations. His political behavior was profoundly influenced by both ideology and the attitudes and judgments shaped by his 10 years in China.
 
 
From union clinics to barefoot doctors: healers, medical pluralism, and state medicine in Chinese villages, 1950–1970
Fang Xiaoping
Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore 
 
This paper explores the dynamic differentiation and reorganization of healers within a plural medical system from the birth of the union clinics in the early 1950s to the popularization of barefoot doctors in Chinese villages in 1970. After 1949, the state started to mobilize individual medical practitioners to form union clinics that implemented a system of fees for services, individual accounting, self-responsibility for profits and losses, democratic management, and distribution according to each contribution. The union clinics became the township-level medical agencies following the establishment of county hospitals. These developments indicated the beginning of the dynamic differentiation of a plural medical system and formed the basic structure of the state medical system in 1950s–60s. Through the complete reshuffling of healers within the plural medical system, by 1970 barefoot doctors were embedded in the reorganized rural medical world of Chinese villages.
 
 
In search of a new vision: recent Japanese-language overviews of modern Chinese history
Ishikawa Yoshihiro
Kyoto University, Kyoto
 
After the implementation of China’s Reform Policy and the dissolution of the Cold War system, the conditions in Japan for conducting scholarly research on China’s modern history changed drastically. We can categorize Japanese research on China’s modern history since the 1980s into two components: the relativization of the Chinese Revolution and a rediscovery of the uniqueness of Chinese society. Some historians, however, continue to point out that an alternative vision of history that integrates detailed research results already achieved within individual areas of history has not yet replaced the conventional revolution-based paradigm. It is indisputable, as they emphasize, that breaking away from the so-called revolution-based viewpoint of history in Japan has created diverse visions of history and has contributed to a more substantial body of work pertaining to China’s modern history. The question of what kind of new vision we should search for, however, remains unanswered. Recent overviews of modern Chinese history in Japan were expected to answer this question. This paper is intended as a general review of recent trends and expected developments in Japanese research on China’s modern history by introducing the most important overviews written by Japanese scholars. We are not concerned here with individual case study research.




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