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2009-Volume 3, Number 1

作者: 文章来源: 点击数: 更新时间:2010年11月30日

 Journal of Modern Chinese History

VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 JUNE 2009

 
CONTENTS
 
Articles
Chiang Kai-shek and Christianity: religious life reflected from his diary
Bae Kyounghan
 
Chiang Kai-shek’s reading: an inquiry based on Chiang’s diary, 1920s–1940s
Wang Qisheng
 
Tribal diplomacy and frontier territoriality in modern China: Hunza and Nationalist
China, 1947–1948
Lin Hsiao-ting
 
The ‘‘Zhanguoce’’ school’s effort of wartime cultural reconstruction, 1940–1942
Wu Guo
 
Wading into the stream of Chinese life: the life and missionary career of Roderick
Scott in China, 1916–1949
Brad Bauer
 
Review Essay
A review of Yang Tianshi’s Seeking for Truthful Chiang Kai-shek: Interpreting The
Diary of Chiang Kai-shek
Chen Yung-fa
 
Commentary
Innovations of modern Chinese history studies since reform and opening-up
Yu Heping
 
Book Reviews
 
Notes on Contributors
 
 
 
Chiang Kai-shek and Christianity: religious life reflected from his diary
Bae Kyounghan
Silla University, Busan, South Korea
 
By examining the recently-publicized diary of Chiang Kai-shek, this study investigates how he accepted Christianity, what influences Christianity had on him, and how his faith was realized in his daily life. What initially prompted Chiang to accept Christianity as his personal faith, around the time he married Song Meiling, was the admonishment of Ni Guizhen, Song’s mother. Since that time, Song wielded great influence over him, which played a significant role in his final conversion. But Chiang did not truly live life as a Christian until the 20 or so days of the Xi’an Incident in December 1936, when he was imprisoned. Around 1938, his spiritual life centered on regular Bible studies and prayer sessions. After he became Christian, his goal was not only the pursuit of moral enrichment and cultivation on a personal level; it was also focused on help for China. Particularly after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident when China was in the crisis of perishing as a nation, Chiang prayed primarily for national salvation. As China continued to lose many battles in the war and the future became increasingly bleak, he grew increasingly reliant on God’s help, trusting to prayer for national liberation and independence. He wrote in his diary that his own sins led to the suffering of the country, and sought God’s forgiveness for them. He also advocated a reform of China based on the Christian spirit of sacrifice, service, and solidarity. Thus, Christianity provided one of the most important paths for Chiang the politician not only to become a better person but also for China to be saved and to become a better society.
 
 
Chiang Kai-shek’s reading: an inquiry based on Chiang’s diary, 1920s–1940s
Wang Qisheng
History Department, Peking University, Beijing
 
At different times of his life, Chiang Kai-shek entertained three different images of himself: saint, hero and revolutionary guru. The orientation of his reading roughly corresponded with these roles: to be a saint, he emphasized moral learning and self-improvement; to be a hero, he stressed military strategy and politics; and to be the guru for a revolution, he had an enduring interest in the histories of revolutions in other nations. He seldom took an interest in books about knowledge, leisure or entertainment, which had little connection with these three roles. Chiang was closer to a traditional Chinese intellectual than to his predecessor Dr. Sun Yat-sen in his knowledge structure, value orientation and behaviour codes. Although Mao Zedong was as devoted to old Chinese books as Chiang, Mao preferred history and classical literature while Chiang preferred Confucian classics. Mao read old books from a historical materialist point of view, whereas Chiang synthesized ‘‘Three Principles of the People’’ (Sanmin zhuyi) with Confucian doctrines.
 
 
Tribal diplomacy and frontier territoriality in modern China: Hunza and Nationalist China, 1947–1948
Lin Hsiao-ting
Hoover Institution, Stanford University, Stanford, California
 
In the immediate post-World War II period, the Chinese Nationalist regime was eager to consolidate its position and formulate a proactive policy toward China’s traditional Central Asian peripheries. Postwar Nationalist China’s momentary confidence in extending central influence into the Pamir and Kashmir regions can be understood in such a geopolitical context. The withdrawal of British colonial rule in India further increased Nanjing’s optimism about bringing Hunza, a Muslim tribal state in northwest Kashmir, under its territorial and administrative sway. To prevent possible infiltration of Soviet influence in Central Asia, the Nationalists at one point even considered resorting to the restoration of imperial ‘‘tributary ties’’ as a political expedient in their dealings with postwar China’s frontier territorial issues. A careful examination of the Nationalists’ previously unknown abortive attempt to reclaim Hunza enables us to fill an important scholarly lacuna in the history of modern China’s external relations with its South and Central Asian neighbors. This reevaluation, moreover, may also lead us to further reconsider modern China’s intriguing and complicated frontier diplomatic and territorial scenario, as well as how that scenario could have been manipulated by a certain group of ambitious distant Nationalist border officials during the course of postwar China’s problematic frontier undertakings.
 
 
The ‘‘Zhanguoce’’ school’s effort of wartime cultural reconstruction, 1940–1942
Wu Guo
Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsylvania
 
This article examines the Zhanguoce school’s unique cultural, historical, and political thinking in the context of cultural transformation and a search for meaning during the Anti-Japanese War (1937–1945). The group was mainly composed of scholars who were born in the 1900s and educated in America and Europe. Keenly concerned for China’s survival and influenced by the theories of Oswald Spengler, Arnold Toynbee and Chinese Legalism, the group challenged the May Fourth intellectual legacy of positivism and evidential research, presenting in its place an amoral, militarist worldview, a culture-based global historical theory, and a state-centered political philosophy. The school attempted moreover to interpret world history in the light of the Chinese historical pattern. Their radical outlook was quite different from the contemporaneous trends of positivism and historical materialism, but they did attempt to provide an alternative ideology to guide China’s wartime cultural reconstruction.
 
 
Wading into the stream of Chinese life: the life and missionary career of Roderick Scott in China, 1916–1949
Brad Bauer
Hoover Institution Archives, Stanford University, Stanford, California
 
The legacy of Western Christian missionaries to China during the early twentieth century has often been debated by historians, being judged both positively and negatively. Yet, the truth is usually more complex. In examining the lives of Roderick and Agnes Scott, two American missionaries and educators who were active in Fuzhou from 1916–1949, the historian can see how the interaction between Western Christianity and Chinese culture played out in at least one instance, and observe how one American couple developed a growing affinity for the Chinese people and their culture, which gradually led them to the role of interpreters and advocates on behalf of the Chinese during and following World War II. Yet the papers of Roderick Scott also provide examples of the complex relationship between the Chinese and resident foreigners during these years. They document the rise of anti-foreigner sentiment in the 1920s, the debates over the Sinicization of western institutions in the years that followed, the solidarity displayed by foreign missionaries toward the Chinese during the years of the Sino–Japanese War, and their great reluctance to leave China following the revolution of 1949.
 
 
Innovations of modern Chinese history studies since reform and opening-up
Yu Heping
Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing
 
This paper reviews new developments in the study of modern Chinese history since 1979, especially key questions in modern Chinese history, together with innovations in content, structure and research methods. These new developments reflect the broadening of academic exchanges with foreign countries, the initiation of reforms, the influence of the modernization process, and far-reaching innovations in the discipline of modern Chinese history studies since the reform and opening-up of China.




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