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2009-Volume 3, Number 2

作者: 文章来源: 点击数: 更新时间:2010年11月30日

 Journal of Modern Chinese History

VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 DECEMBER 2009
 
 
CONTENTS
 
Articles
The theory and implementation of the People’s Republic of China’s revolutionary diplomacy
Yang Kuisong
 
A further discussion of decision-making in the 1958 shelling of Jinmen
Niu Jun
 
The ‘‘Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution’’: China’s modern trauma
Thomas Heberer
 
Wuming: an underground art group during the Cultural Revolution
Wang Aihe
 
Review Essays
A major contribution to modern Chinese cultural history: a review of Geng Yunzhi’s An Introduction to China’s Modern Cultural Transformation
Ouyang Zhesheng
 
The rebirth of China in the eyes of the international community: a review of Professor Xu Guoqi’s China and the Great War: China’s Pursuit of a New National Identity and Internationalization
Ye Jun
 
Commentary
A summary of the past two decades’ research on non-governmental forces in modern China
Zhu Ying
 
Book Reviews
 
Notes on Contributors
 
 
 
The theory and implementation of the People’s Republic of China’s revolutionary diplomacy
Yang Kuisong
Department of History, East China Normal University, Shanghai
 
The foreign relations of modern China, starting from the birth of the People’s Republic in 1949 until the Cultural Revolution, can be said to have had continuous ups and downs and twists and turns. Its underlying abstruse principles, while stemming from nationalism, contained for the most part the Chinese Communist Party’s own revolutionary principles and individual revolutionary experiences. The Chinese Communist revolution was based on class analysis and class conflict, on struggle and ideology. This ideology determined how China viewed itself and the world; no views could be separated from the ideology of class struggle and class analysis. The leadership’s adherence to this type of ideology led to the long-term instability of China’s diplomacy. Though those who, like Mao Zedong, employed class revolution in order to seize political power while viewing class analysis, class struggle, and in particular the success of using class ideology in a united front policy as the magic wand of the revolution’s success, were singularly able to adapt such views to China’s foreign policy and diplomacy. This became the fundamental red line for China’s foreign policy.
 
 
A further discussion of decision-making in the 1958 shelling of Jinmen
Niu Jun
School of International Studies, Peking University, Beijing
 
The southeast coast military operation starting from 1954 took place amid keen antagonism between China and the United States because of the Korean War and America’s increasing entanglement in the Taiwan question. The People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) military actions towards the Chiang-controlled offshore islands had an obvious defensive cast from their conception to their later unfolding in practice. The 1958 Shelling of Jinmen (Quemoy) was part of a plan drawn up by the PLA to seize the islands occupied by Chiang Kai-shek’s forces off Mainland China’s southeast coastline and a continuance of a military operation that had been evolving since the spring of 1954. This occurred against the backdrop of special domestic and international settings at the time, which were endowed by Mao Zedong with special political significance at some stage. The cautious, defensive nature embodied in both the strategic and operational planning was the key factor leading to the complexity of decision-making motivation and process.
 
 
The ‘‘Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution’’: China’s modern trauma
Thomas Heberer
Institutes of Political Science and East Asian Studies, University of Duisburg–Essen
 
This paper examines and analyses the causes and consequences of the Cultural Revolution in China. This great twentieth century Chinese trauma cannot be detached from Mao as a person. He was its initiator and – as a charismatic leader – stood above the people and the party, and in the consciousness of the majority of the people was perceived as a great, compelling leader. This paper traces the historical setting, the causes, the process and the consequences of this tremendous political and social movement. In addition, the role of Mao and the concepts of his followers are scrutinized. Finally, the issue of whether or not the Cultural Revolution should be classified as a ‘‘revolution’’ is discussed.
 
 
Wuming: an underground art group during the Cultural Revolution
Wang Aihe
School of Chinese, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
 
The Wuming painting group opened its first public exhibition in Beijing in 1979. The hundreds of small paintings exhibited were accumulated through years of clandestine art practice stretching back to the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. This article traces the history of the Wuming group and its art – describing the social identities of the artists, exploring the historical context of the group’s formation, reconstructing the underground art and cultural activities, and contextualizing the group’s artistic innovations. The history of this underground art group addresses larger debates over Chinese modernity, and over the interpretation of the history of the Cultural Revolution in today’s global context.
 
 
A summary of the past two decades’ research on non-governmental forces in modern China
Zhu Ying
The Institute of Modern Chinese History, Central China Normal University, Wuhan
 
Recent research on non-governmental forces in modern China, during its inception in the early 1990s, bore obvious influences from Western theories of civil society and the public sphere. By the late 1990s, this research began to pick up new momentum: the scope was expanded, findings were increased, essays and empirical studies came forth incessantly. During the first decade of the twenty-first century, research by Chinese scholars on the topic grew at an even greater rate. Aside from those academics who continued to borrow theories of civil society and public sphere, more scholars began employing the analytical framework of ‘‘society and state’’ to tackle the many issues within the non-governmental sectors of modern China.




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