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ruling people, politicians and statesmen of The Republic of China

Author:   unknown    Hits:    Update Time:2006年11月30日

Beiyang Government (Beijing)
1912-1928
Provincial Governors (Warlords)


Central (Provisional) Military Government of the Republic of China (Beiyang zhongyang zhengfu 北洋中央政府) 1912-1928
Capital: Beijing 北京 (from 1928 called Beiping 北平)
Presidents (da zongtong 大總統)
Prime Ministers (guowu zongli 國務總理)
Li Yuanhong 黎元洪
Military governor of Hubei
Nov-Dez 1911
Sun Yat-sen 孫逸仙 (Sun Yixian, Sun Zhongshan 孫中山, Sun Wen 孫文)
Provisional president (linshi da zongtong 臨時大總統) in Nanjing 南京/Jiangsu. Later called Guofu 國父 "Father of the Nation"
Jan-Mar 1912
Yuan Shikai 袁世凱
Provisional president until Oct 1913, Emperor Jan-Apr 1916, reign mott Hongxian 洪憲 (Usurpatorious Hongxian Government [Wei Hongxian zhengfu 偽洪憲政府])
Mar 1912-Jun 1916 Tang Shaoyi 唐紹儀
In Jun replaced by Lu Zhengxiang
Mar-Jun 1912
Lu Zhengxiang 陸徵祥
Aug-Sep replaced by Zhao Bingjun
Jun-Sep 1912
Zhao Bingjun 趙秉鈞
Jan-Jul replaced by Duan Qirui; in Jul, by Zhu Qiqian 朱啟鈐
Sep 1912-Jul 1913
Duan Qirui 段祺瑞 Jul 1913
Xiong Xiling 熊希齡 Jul 1913-Feb 1914
Sun Baoqi 孫寶琦 Feb-May 1914
Xu Shichang 徐世昌
Secretary of state (guowu qing 國務卿). Oct-Dec replaced by Lu Zhengxiang
May 1914-Dec 1915
Lu Zhengxiang (2nd time)
Secretary of state
Dec 1915-Mar 1916
Xu Shichang (2nd time)
Secretary of state
Mar-Apr 1916
Duan Qirui (2nd time)
Secretary of state Apr-Jun 1916, then prime minister
Apr 1916-May 1917
Li Yuanhong (2nd time)
Usurpation of Imperial Restaurators (Fubi wei zhengfu 復辟偽政府), Jul-Nov 1917, Emperor: Aisin Giorro Puyi 愛新覺羅溥儀, Imperial Throne Council (Neige yizheng 內閣議政) members: Zhang Xun 張勳, Chen Baochen 陳寶琛, Liu Tingchen 劉廷琛, Zhang Zhenfang 張鎮芳, Wang Shizhen 王士珍, Liang Dunyan 梁敦彥, Yuan Dahua 袁大化
Jun 1916-Jul 1917
Wu Tingfang 伍廷芳
Replaced by Min. of Foreign Affairs
May 1917
Li Jingxi 李經羲
May-Jun replaced by Wu Tingfang; in Jun, by Jiang Chaozong 江朝宗
May-Jul 1917
Feng Guozhang 馮國璋 Aug 1917-Oct 1918 Duan Qirui (3rd time) Jul-Nov 1917
Wang Daxie 汪大燮
Temporarily replaced by Wang Shizhen 王士珍
Nov 1917
Wang Shizhen 王士珍
Acting since Dec, in Feb-Mar replaced by Qian Nengxun
Nov 1917-Mar 1918
Duan Qirui (4th time) Mar-Oct 1918
Xu Shichang 徐世昌
Acting person: Zhou Ziqi, Jun 1922
Oct 1918-Jun 1922 Qian Nengxun 錢能訓
Oct-Dec replaced
Oct 1918-Jun 1919
Gong Xinzhan 龔心湛
Replaced by Min. of Finance
Jun-Sep 1919
Jin Yunpeng 靳雲鵬
Replaced by Min. of Armed Forces
Sep 1919-May 1920
Sa Zhenbing 薩鎮冰
Replaced by Min. of Navy
May-Aug 1920
Jin Yunpeng (2nd time)
Inaugurated May 1921
Aug 1920-Dec 1921
Yan Huiqing 顏惠慶 Dec 1921
Liang Shiyi 梁士詒 Dec 1921-Jan 1922
Yan Huiqing (2nd time)
Replaced by Min. of Foreign Affairs
Jan-Apr 1922
Zhou Ziqi 周自齊 Apr-Jun 1922
Li Yuanhong (3rd time) Jun 1922-Jun 1923 Yan Huiqing (again)
In Aug replaced by Wang Chonghui 王寵惠
Jun-Aug 1922
Wang Chonghui 王寵惠
Nominee Tang Shaoyi not taking over
Aug-Nov 1922
Wang Daxie (2nd time) Nov-Dec 1922
Wang Zhengting 王正廷
Replaced by Min. of Foreign Affairs
Dec 1922-Jan 1923
Zhang Shaozeng 張紹曾 Jan-Jun 1923
Gao Lingwei 高凌霨
Premier acting as president
Jun-Oct 1923 Li Genyuan 李根源
Replaced by Min. of Agriculture and Commerce
Jun 1923
Gao Lingwei 高凌霨
Replaced by Min. of Internal Affairs
Jun 1923-Jan 1924
Cao Kun 曹錕 Oct 1923-Nov 1924
Sun Baoqi (2nd time) Jan-Jul 1924
Gu Weijun 顧維鈞 Jul-Sep 1924
Yan Huiqing (4th time) Sep-Oct 1924
Huang Fu 黃郛
Premier acting as president
Nov 1924 Huang Fu 黃郛
Replaced by Min. of Traffic
Oct-Nov 1924
Duan Qirui 段祺瑞
Provisional president
Nov 1924-Apr 1926 (vacant) Nov 1924-Dec 1925
Xu Shiying 許世英 Dec 1925-Feb 1926
Jia Deyao 賈德耀 Feb-Apr 1926
Hu Weide 胡惟德 Apr-May 1926
Yan Huiqing 顏惠慶
Premier provisionally acting as president
May-Jun 1926 Yan Huiqing May-Jun 1926
Du Xigui 杜錫珪
Premier provisionally acting as president
Jun-Oct 1926 Du Xigui 杜錫珪 Jun-Oct 1926
Gu Weijun (Wellington Koo) 顧維鈞
Premier provisionally acting as president
Oct1926-Jun 1927 Gu Weijun (2nd time) Oct 1926-Jun 1927
Hu Weide (2nd time) Jun 1927
Zhang Zuolin 張作霖
Great Marshal of Military Government (Jun zhengfu da yuanshuai 軍政府大元帥)
Jun 1927-Jun 1928 Pan Fu 潘復 Jun 1927-Jun 1928


Nationalist Government of Guangzhou (Guangzhou guomin zhengfu 廣州國民政府) 1917-1928
Capital: Guangzhou 廣州/Guandong
Presidents (Chairmen of National Government [Guomin zhengfu zhuxi 國民政府主席])
Sun Yat-sen 孫逸仙 (Sun Yixian, Sun Zhongshan 孫中山, Sun Wen 孫文) Sep 1917-Jul 1918
Sun Yat-sen, Tang Shaoyi 唐紹儀, Wu Tingfang 伍廷芳, Cen Chunxuan , Lu Rongting, Tang Jiyao, Lin Baoyi
Governing Committee of the Military Government
Jul-Aug 1918
Cen Chunxuan Aug 1918-Oct 1920
Sun Yat-sen, Tang Shaoyi, Wu Tingfang, Tang Jiyao
Governing Committee of the Military Government
Oct 1920-May 1921
Sun Yat-sen
Extraordinary President
May 1921-Jun 1922
(vacancy) Jun 1922-Mar 1923
Sun Yat-sen
Generalissimo of the National Government
Mar 1923-Mar 1925
Hu Hanmin
Generalissimo of the National Government
Mar-Jul 1925
Wang Jingwei 汪精衛
Chairman of the National Government
Jul 1925-Apr 1926
Tan Yankai
Chairman of the National Government, from Dec 1926 in Wuhan 武漢/Hubei
Apr 1926-Mar 1927
Wang Jingwei
In Wuhan 武漢. Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Government (Guomin zhengfu changwu weiyuan zhuxi 國民政府常務委員主席). In Apr 1927 Jiang Jieshi founds Nationalist Government in Nanjing 南京/Jiangsu, chairman: Hu Hanmin 胡漢民; in Sep Wuhan Government dissolves and unites with Nanjing
Mar-Sep 1927
Tan Yankai
Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Government
Sep 1927-Oct 1928


Nationalist Government of Nanjing (Nanjing guomin zhengfu 南京國民政府) 1928-1949
Capital: Nanjing 南京/Jiangsu, from 1938-1946 Chongqing 重慶/Sichuan
Presidents (Chairmen of National Government [Guomin zhengfu zhuxi 國民政府主席])
Prime ministers (Presidents of the Executive Yuan [Xingzhengyuan yuanzhang 行政院院長])
Jiang Jieshi 蔣介石 (Chiang Kai-shek)
Chairman of the National Government
Oct 1928-Dec 1931 Tan Yankai 譚延闓 Oct 1928-Sep 1930
Song Ziwen (T.V. Soong) 宋子文 Sep-Dec 1930
Jiang Jieshi 蔣介石 Dec 1930-Dec 1931
Chen Mingshu 陳銘樞 Dec 1931
Lin Sen 林森
Chairman of the National Government. Acting Dec 1931-Jan 1932
Dec 1931-Aug 1943 Sun Ke 孫科 Dec 1931-Jan 1932
Wang Jingwei 汪精衛 (Wang Zhaoming 汪兆銘) Jan 1932-Dec 1935
Jiang Jieshi (2nd time) Dec 1935-Jan 1938
Kong Xiangxi (H.H. Kung) 孔祥熙 Jan 1938-Nov 1939
Jiang Jieshi (3rd time) Nov 1939-May 1945
Jiang Jieshi (2nd time)
Acting Aug-Oct 1943, from May 1948 President
Aug 1943-Jan 1949
Song Ziwen (2nd time) May 1945-Mar 1947
Jiang Jieshi (4th time) Mar-Apr 1947
Zhang Qun 張群 Apr 1947-May 1948
Weng Wenhao 翁文灝 May-Nov 1948
Sun Ke (2nd time) Nov 1948-Mar 1949
Li Zongren
From Dec 1949 on Taiwan
Jan 1949-Mar 1950
He Yingqin 何應欽 Mar-Jun 1949
Yan Xishan 閻錫山
From Dec 1949 on Taiwan
Jun 1949-Mar 1950


Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

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